1. Steven M. Amundsen has published a paper titled Federal Circuit Decisions Concerning Smartphones Have Created Uncertainty Regarding the Evidence Needed to Prove Irreparable Harm and Establish Entitlement to Injunctive Relief, 42 Rutgers Comp. & Tech. L.J. 232 (2016). From the introduction:
In four decisions by the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in two patent cases that Apple filed against Samsung, the court has appeared to flip-flop when describing the evidence needed to prove an essential element for injunctive relief: irreparable harm. A patentee must establish irreparable harm, among other things, to obtain a preliminary or permanent injunction. And to establish irreparable harm, a patentee must demonstrate a sufficiently strong connection-or causal nexus-between the patent infringement and the alleged irreparable harm.
In its Apple v. Samsung decisions, the Federal Circuit explained that "[s]ales lost to an infringing product cannot irreparably harm a patentee if consumers buy that product for reasons other than the patented feature."' So if "the accused product would sell almost as well without incorporating the patented feature," the infringement injures the patentee only insubstantially even if the accused product's sales cause substantial damage commercially.' Thus, the causal-nexus requirement (1) ensures that the infringement causes the irreparable harm "in the first place"' and (2) prevents the patentee from "leverag[ing] its patent for competitive gain beyond that which the inventive contribution and value of the patent warrant."
This article discusses the causal-nexus requirement's evolution at the Federal Circuit based on two cases initially filed in April 2011 and February 2012. This article also discusses how various trial courts have applied the causal-nexus requirement when considering the propriety of injunctive relief. It then discusses points to consider when seeking to show or refute a causal nexus.
The most recent Federal Circuit decision in this series is currently awaiting a cert. decision from the U.S. Supreme Court. For discussion, see, e.g., this post and this post by Florian Mueller on FOSS Patents.
2. J. Gregory Sidak has published a paper titled Irreparable Harm from Patent Infringement, 2 Criterion J. on Innov. 1 (2017). Here is a link to the paper, and here is the abstract:
The Patent Act empowers a court to issue an injunction “to prevent the violation of any right secured by patent.” Whether a court will permanently enjoin an infringer depends on whether (1) the patent holder would suffer irreparable harm otherwise, (2) its legal remedies are inadequate, (3) the balance of hardships favors the patent holder, and (4) the injunction would not disserve the public interest. Similar factors inform the grant of a preliminary injunction. The Federal Circuit often says that the harm from patent infringement is irreparable if it cannot be measured. I say that such harm is irreparable because it irreversibly destroys wealth.
3. Jonathan Stroud has published a paper titled NFC Technology LLC v. HTC America, Inc.: Judge Bryson's Sitting-by-Designation Guide to Securing Stays in Light of Inter Partes Review, 65 Am. U. L. Rev. 1075 (2016). Here is a link to the paper, and here is the abstract:Patent infringement irreversibly obliterates wealth when it impedes society’s technical progress. Patent infringement does more than transfer wealth involuntarily from the patent holder to the infringer; it also harms third parties by devastating the surplus that consumers would derive from using the product practicing the new technology. Damages are impotent to cure that harm to the public interest. A court’s order of damages can no more recreate the wealth that has been or will be destroyed by an act of patent infringement than it can restore an ancient redwood after the axeman has felled it.
Federal Article III judges may stay civil litigation. Stays are most appropriate where another court or authority may resolve a part of or the entire dispute. Some statutes guide the courts on when to stay; some case law and appellate precedent guide judges on when a stay is appropriate. But the interlocutory nature of such decisions makes precedential decisions scarce. The Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB), an administrative body tasked with patent post-grant review, efficiently reviews patentability of and can estopp later validity arguments. Stays in light of these proceedings are particularly favored. Although it will be some time before a body of appellate precedent develops surrounding these stays, one senior appellate judge from the patent-focused U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, sitting by designation, has issued a district court decision in a contentious district, where he exhaustively compiled district court stay cases and offered a guide for other judges faced with determining whether to stay. This Essay analyzes that decision.Here is a copy of the decision itself.